The 19th Century in the Arab World saw the rise of pioneering figures who. strove to revive Classical Arabic literature. They produced important linguistic works which prepared the way for further achievements. They were succeeded, in the late 19th and in the early twentieth century, by a group of committed authors who laid the foundation of modern journalism, essay·writing, drama, fiction and modern poetry. They produced a neo·c1assical literature and, in spite of variety in the topics they treated, their works were characterized by deep interest in social reform.