According to a recent American report, Lebanon is one of the countries black-listed for engagement in human trafficking (The Daily Star). Domestic labor is one of the two occupations harboring the largest number of trafficked victims in the country, the other being prostitution (AFROL). Domestic laborers in Lebanon consist largely of African and Asian migrants. These are only permitted into the country under a job contract, which stipulates live-in arrangements, a 12-hour working day and one day off per week, usually spent at home (Kristianessen 11).
AFROL Gender Profiles: Ethiopia, AFROL NEWS, 19 November 2003,
Al Zougbi, Alia: a. Migrant Focus Group. Personal Interview. June 13, 2002.
Al Zougbi, Alia: b. Official at Hobeish Police Station . Personal Interview. June 15, 2002.
Al Zougbi, Alia: c. Street’s local inhabitants. Personal Interview. June 12, 2002.
Anderson, Benedict. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Bretell, Caroline. (2000). “Theorizing Migration in Anthropology,” in Migration Thoery: Talking Across Disciplines, Routledge, pp. 97-121.
Chavez, Leo R. (1994). “The Power of the Imagined Community: The Settlement of Undocumented Mexicans and Central Americans in the
United States,” American Anthropologist 96: 52-73.
Haddad, Reem, “Debate Raging Over Insuring Sri Lankans”, the Daily Star, June 19, 1999.
_______, “Sri Lankans Sort Out Their Insurance Problem”, the Daily Star, July 27, 1999.
_______, “The Safety Net for Those Who Have Furthest to Fall”, the Daily Star, April 21, 2000
_______, “A Modern Day Slave Trade”. Middle East Report. Summer 1999.
Hage, G. (2002) “Evil White Nationalists” in White Nation: Fantasies of White Supremacy in a Multicultural Society. Melbourne: Pluto Press, pp. 27-77.
_______, (2000) “Citizenship and Honourability: Belonging to Australia Today” in G. Hage (ed) Arab Australians Today: Citizenship and Belonging. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, pp. 1-15.
Hannouche, Julie, “Modern-day Slavery: A Maid in Lebanon,” the Daily Star, November 21, 1998.
Hugo, Graeme J. (1981). “Village-communities, village norms, and ethnic and social networks: A review of evidence from the Third World.” In Gordon F. DeJong and Robert W. Gardner (eds.) Migration Decision Making: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Microlevel Studies in Developed
and Developing Countries. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 186-225.
“Increased Traffic in Ethiopian Women Discovered.” Africa Online News. 14, August, 2002. <http://www.afrol.com/ms_index.htm>
Joureidini, R. and Moukarbel, N. (2001) “Contract Slavery: the Case of Female Sri Lankan Domestic Labour in Lebanon” paper presented to
conference on Domestic Service and Mobility: Labour, Livelihoods and Lifestyles, International Institute of Social History. University of Amsterdam, 5-7 February.
_______, (2001) “Migrant Workers and Xenophobia in the Middle East” Paper presented at the United Nations Research Institute for Social
Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy, September 2001, Durban, South Africa.
Khoder, Mohamed. (1988) Human Rights in Islam. Edited and Translated by Dr. Zaid A. Al Husain.
Kristianasen, Wendy. “The Beirut Slave Trade” in Le Monde Diplomatique. pp. 9-11. June 1998.
Massey, Douglas S. (1986). “The settlement process among Mexican migrants to the United States.” American Sociological Review 51: 670-
_______, (1990). “Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration.” Population Index 56: 3-26.
_______, et al., (1993) “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal” Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 3,
September, pp. 431-466.
Schneider, Jane. (1971) “Of Vigilance and Virgins: Honor, Shame, and Access to Resources in Mediterranean Societies.” Ethnology 9. 1-24.
Taylor, J. Edward. (1991) “Differential migration, networks, information and risk,” in Oded Stark (ed.). Research in Human Capital Development. Vol. 4, Migration, Human Capital, and Development. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, pp.147-171.
“Trafficking in Human Beings: Implications for the OSCE”. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Review Conference, Sept. 1999.