It is common knowledge that it takes many years to accumulate the sums of money needed for marriage in Egypt, as well as in many other countries in the Arab world. Getting married has become a protracted campaign for young people and their families right across the social spectrum. This economic challenge has unexplored implications for national economies. And in Arab countries with huge and growing cohorts of young people, the expectations of the young have important political repercussions, as leaders and states are expected to meet the needs of their youthful populations.
Adams, Richard H. 2000. "Evaluating the Process of Development in Egypt, 1980-97." International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 32: 255-275.
Ahmed, Leila. 1992. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of Modern Debate. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Allam, Abeer. 2000. "Urfi Delivers the Goods, at Half Price." Middle East Times (February 18).
Amin, Sajida and Negah Hassan. Forthcoming, 2001. "Female Employment in the New Free Zones." Population Council, New York.
Assaad, Ragui and Malak Rouchdy. 1999. "Poverty and Poverty Alleviation Strategies in Egypt." Cairo Papers in Social Science 22: 1.
Badran, Margot. 1991. "Competing Agenda: Feminists, Islam and the State in Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Egypt." In Women, Islam, and the State, Deniz Kandiyoti, ed., 201-236. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Bouis, Howarth E. and Akhter U. Ahmed. 1998. "The Egyptian Food Subsidy System: Impacts on the Poor and an Evaluation of Alternatives for Policy Reforms." International Food Policy Research Institute. Food Security Research Unit of the Agricultural Policy Reform Program in Egypt in Collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Land
Reclamation and the Ministry of Trade and Supply. March 31, 1998. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C.
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). 1987. Population, Housing, and Establishment Census 1986: Preliminary Results. Nasr City, Egypt.
_. _ _ . 1997. Population, Housing, and Establishment Census 1986: Preliminary Results. Nasr City, Egypt.
Datt, Gairav, Dean Jolliffe, and Manohar Sharma. 1998. "A Profile of Poverty in Egypt." FCDN Discussion Paper No. 49. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D. C. August.
"Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, 1995." 1996. National Population Council (Egypt) and Macro International Inc. Calverton, .MD.
Ezzat, Dina. 2000. "Sacred Knots and Unholy Deals: The Road Towards Pro-Women Legal Reform in Egypt." In No Paradise Yet,eds . Judith Mirsky and Marty Radlett, 39-60. London: Panos/Zed Press.
EI-Magd, Nadia. 1998. "Anniversary Wedding." AI-Ahram Weekly 398 (October 8-14).
Goody, Jack and Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah. 1973. Bridewealth and Dowry. Cambridge University Press.
Greene, Margaret E. and Vijayendra Rao. 1995. "The Marriage Squeeze and the Rise in Informal Marriage in Brazil." Social Biology 42 (Spring): 65-82.
Haddad, Lawrence and Ahmed A. Akhter. 2000. "Poverty Dynamics in Egypt: 1997-1999." International Food Policy Institute. September.
Ibrahim, Barbara. 1980. "Social Change and the Industrial Experience." Ph. D. dissertation. Indiana University.
Ibrahim, Barbara et. al. 2000. Transitions to Adulthood: A National Survey of Egyptian Adolescents. 2nd Edition. The Population Council, Cairo, Egypt.
Ibrahim, Barbara and Hind Wassef. 1999. "Caught Between Two Worlds: Youth in the Egyptian Hinterland." In Alienation or Integration of Arab Youth: Between Family, State and Street, ed. Roel Meijer. Richmond, Surrey: Curazon Press.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank. 2000. World Bank's World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.
Lloyd, Cynthia B. and Nora Guhl Naguib. 1994. "Gender Inequalities and Demographic Behavior." The Population Council. New York.
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation and Ministry of Trade and Supply. 1997. "Egypt Integrated Household Survey." (June 16). Cairo.
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation and Ministry of Trade and Supply. 1999. "Egypt Household Expenditure Survey." (January 14). Cairo.
Nagi, Saad Z. 2001. Poverty in Egypt: Human Needs and Institutional Capacities. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Osman, Magued and Laila Shahd. 2000. "Who Marries Whom in Egypt: A Response to Marriage Constraints." Paper presented at Ninth Annual Symposium, Cairo Papers in Social Science Conference, "The New Arab Family." 6-7 May, Cairo. Forthcoming, Cairo Papers in Social Science.
Rashad, Hoda and Magued Osman. 2000 . . "The Nuptiality Transition in the Arab World and its Implications." Paper presented at Ninth Annual Symposium, Cairo Papers in Social Science Conference, "The New Arab Family." 6-7 May, Cairo. Forthcoming, Cairo Papers in Social Science.
Rashad, Hoda and Zeinab Khadr. 1998. "The Demography of the Arab Region: New Challenges and Opportunities." Unpublished paper presented at the Conference on Population Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa: Towards the Twenty First Century. Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development and the Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey. 2-4 November, Cairo, Egypt.
Rugh, Andrea. 1984. Family in Contemporary Egypt. New York: Syracuse University Press.
Shahine, Gihan. 1998. "The Double Bind" Al Ahram Weekly 397 (1-7 October).
Singerman, Diane. 1995. Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics, and Networks in Urban Quarters of Cairo. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Singerman, Diane and Barbara L. Ibrahim. Forthcoming. "The Cost of Marriage in Egypt: A Hidden Variable in the New Arab Demography." Cairo Papers in the Social Sciences. Cairo.
Sonbol, Amira EI Azhary, ed. 1996. Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
United States. Department of State. 2000. "1999 Country Report on Economic Policy and Trade Practices-Egypt." Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. March.
Wiktorowicz, Quintain and Suha Taji Farouki. 2000. "Islamic Non-Governmental Organizations and Muslim Politics: A Case from Jordan." Third World Quarterly 21: 685-699.